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Windows Deployment Services (WDS) enables you to deploy Windows operating systems over the network, which means that you vày not have sầu to install each operating system directly from a CD or DVD.

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For information about what is new or included in your version of Windows Deployment Services, see What"s New in Windows Deployment Services in Windows Server 2012.

For step-by-step guidance on how lớn use the Windows Deployment Services, see Windows Deployment Services Getting Started Guide for Windows Server 2012.

Benefits of Windows Deployment Services

Allows network-based installation of Windows operating systems, which reduces the complexity and cost when compared to lớn manual installations.

Supports deploying images for mixed environments including Windows 7& Windows Server 2008 R2 through Windows 8.1and Windows Server 2012 R2.

Uses standard Windows Setup technologies including Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE), .wim files, và image-based thiết lập.

Transmits data and images by using multicast functionality.

Allows you to lớn create images of a reference computer using the Image Capture Wizard, which is an alternative lớn the ImageX tool.

Allows you lớn add driver packages to lớn the VPS và configure them to lớn be deployed khổng lồ client computers along with the install image.

Prerequisites for installing Windows Deployment Services

The following are requirements for installing this role, depending on whether you choose the default installation (both Deployment Server and Transport Server), or only the Transport Server role service.

Deployment Server & Transport Server

Transport Server

AD DS is not required if the WDS hệ thống is configured in Standalone mode.

Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS). A Windows Deployment Services VPS must be a member of an Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domain or a tên miền controller for an AD DS tên miền.

The AD DS domain name & forest versions are irrelevant; all domain and forest configurations tư vấn Windows Deployment Services.


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Note

DHCP. You must have a working Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) hệ thống with an active sầu scope on the network because Windows Deployment Services uses PXE, which relies on DHCP for IPhường addressing.

DNS. You must have sầu a working Domain Name System (DNS) hệ thống on the network before you can run Windows Deployment Services.

NTFS volume. The server running Windows Deployment Services requires an NTFS tệp tin system volume for the image store.

For Windows Server 2008: The only prerequisite is that you must be a thành viên of the Local Administrators group on the hệ thống to lớn install Transport Server. Also note that a PXE provider is not installed with Transport Server, so you must create a custom PXE provider khổng lồ network boot.

For Windows Server 2008 R2: You must be a member of the Local Administrators group to lớn install Transport Server. In addition, if you are using Transport Server to network boot, your environment must contain DHCP (Windows Server 2008 R2 contains a PXE provider, which allows you to network boot).

Tools for managing Windows Deployment Services

The following are tools that you can use to manage your server:

Windows Deployment Services MMC snap-in - Provides an easy way to manage images, computers, và common hệ thống settings. You can perform almost all tasks from the MMC snap-in (for example, you cannot prestage client computers). lưu ý that the snap-in is not available when you install only the Transport Server role service.

WDSUTIL command-line tool - enables you to manage the full functionality of the VPS. WDSUTIL also enables you to lớn script common tasks.

Windows PowerShell cmdlets for WDS – enables you khổng lồ manage & monitor the WDS hệ thống using Windows PowerShell scripts.

Deploying & configuring WDS in a multi-computer environment

It is not comtháng khổng lồ split a WDS server’s functionality aao ước different computers.

Installing the WDS role on virtual machines

You can run Windows Deployment Services on Hyper-V virtual machines. Depending on the capathành phố of your server running Hyper-V, you can install, configure and use Windows Deployment Services. You can also create a virtual machine lớn act as a client machine when building & testing your deployment images. This is especially useful for building your custom images. lưu ý, however, that the performance will often be degraded, particularly during the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) download phase. This phase is very resource-intensive sầu & may fail if insufficient resources are available on your hệ thống running Hyper-V.


Support for the WDS role in a clustered environment

The Windows Deployment Services server service is not cluster-aware. However, you can run multiple WDS servers in a network lớn provide fault-tolerance và load balancing.

Considerations for managing this role remotely

You can manage Windows Deployment Services remotely by installing the Windows Deployment Services hệ thống role on a local hệ thống & then using that server khổng lồ connect lớn the remote hệ thống in the data center or you can use the Windows PowerShell cmdlets for Windows Deployment Services khổng lồ manage a remote VPS.


Managing the WDS role using the Server bộ vi xử lý Core installation option

You cannot use Windows Deployment Services with the Server Core installation option.

Configuring the WDS role for high availability

WDS is designed to lớn automatically fail over lớn other WDS servers. We recommover that you deploy two WDS servers at a minimum and then additional servers to increase redundancy for higher availability.


Known issues

When using the Dynamic Driver Provisioning (DDP) feature on a WDS hệ thống running Windows Server 2012 if you attempt lớn add a driver to lớn a Windows 8.1 or Windows Server 2012 R2 boot.wyên you may receive the following error when running the "Add driver packages to lớn image" wizard: 

An error occurred while trying to lớn exedễ thương commvà. Error Code: 0xc0000135

This is a known issue related lớn DISM version included with Windows Server 2012 that is used by WDS to lớn service images. This version of DISM supports servicing Windows Server 2012 and earlier boot images but does not tư vấn later versions of boot images. You can resolved this issue by upgrading your WDS server to Windows Server 2012 R2 which contains a DISM version that supports servicing Windows 8.1 và Windows Server 2012 R2 boot.wim"s or you can install the Windows 8.1 ADK and manually add the driver lớn the boot.wlặng. For instructions for how to add drivers, see Add and Remove sầu Drivers Offline Using DISM 

Common usage scenarios

The following are common scenarios for Windows Deployment Services.

Scenario one: The small business

Fabrikam, Inc. is a manufacturer of towels with custom designs. It is a small business with a single office. Monica Brink, Fabrikam"s resident IT professional, is responsible for maintaining the IT infrastructure for the company, which consists of 25 client computers running Windows XP SP2 Professional & a single hệ thống running Windows Server 2003 with SP2. The hệ thống functions as a file print server, Web server, Exchange server, Domain Name System (DNS), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) VPS, & domain name controller. The computers are linked by a 100-MBps Ethernet connection.

Monica is given the task of moving all of the client computers to lớn the Windows 7 (or Windows 8.1) operating system & upgrading the single VPS lớn Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012, or Windows Server 2012 R2. It is important that she makes the switch as quickly as possible so that office workers can continue their work.

In the past, she deployed a new operating system one computer at a time. This took her around 45 minutes per computer (almost 19 hours lớn phối up the operating system on all the client computers). For almost three days, Monica was unavailable to lớn work on anything else. Then she would spend almost as much time installing the applications on each computer.

Monica is the only IT professional at Fabrikam, which means that she also must help teach users about the new operating system. Therefore, it is important that she minimizes the amount of time she spends on deployment. To accomplish this, Monica chooses to use Windows Deployment Services because she can:

Save sầu time by running several installations simultaneously.

Use a custom install image with preinstalled applications.

Create an image by using the Windows Deployment Services Image Capture Wizard.

To begin, Monica does the following:

Upgrades her VPS to Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2012 or Windows Server 2012 R2.

Installs the Windows Deployment Services hệ thống role.

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Adds the Boot.wyên ổn from the product DVD (which contains a Windows PE image, Setup.exe, and supporting files) by using the Windows Deployment Services MMC snap-in.

Adds the Install.wyên from the sản phẩm DVD lớn the Windows Deployment Services VPS by using the MMC snap-in.

Uses the MMC snap-in to lớn create a capture image from the boot image she added in step 3. This image contains Windows PE và a wizard that will capture her custom image into a .wyên ổn file.

All users at Fabrikam have the same desktop hardware, which was purchased from a single vendor. To deploy a standard image to lớn the computers, Monica does the following:

Boots a reference computer from the network & installs the Install.wyên onlớn it, which contains the standard version of Windows.

Installs vsao.club Office, the company"s towel-design application, & the lakiểm tra drivers from the manufacturer’s site.

Uses Sysprep khổng lồ generalize the operating system.

Reboots the computer into the capture image.

Uses the Image Capture Wizard to recapture the operating system và upload it directly lớn the Windows Deployment Services VPS.

Now, Monica is ready khổng lồ install the new operating systems. She does not need to migrate any user data, because all of the employees store their user data on a server (rather than on their hard disks). She reboots a client computer & then presses F12 lớn perform a network boot. This boots her inlớn the Boot.wlặng file, which guides her through the installation process. She selects the disk partition và image she wants, & then the installation begins. While waiting for the image khổng lồ be applied to lớn the first computer, Monica boots another computer and starts the same process on that one.

Scenario two: The medium-sized business

Northwind Traders is a shipping firm with three offices: a central office in Tooth City, & branch offices in the towns of Brushville & Flosston. Ron Gable is one of six IT staff members at Northwind Traders. His responsibility is maintaining the 250 client computers used by the company"s employees. These are mostly desktop computers, but the sales force uses laptops for customer presentations. There are 200 computers in the central office in Tooth City, và 25 each in the Brushville and Flosston offices. Each site has an internal network running at 100 MB per second (MBps), and the branch sites are connected lớn the Tooth City office by a T1 line. Ron has three Windows Deployment Services servers at the Tooth City office và one in each of the branch offices, which are administered remotely.

Ron’s supervisor has tasked hyên with deploying Windows 7 (or Windows 8.1) lớn the whole company. Previously, this would have involved many expensive sầu trips to Brushville and Flosston, & it would have sầu taken Ron several weeks khổng lồ complete. He wants to use Windows Deployment Services to deploy Windows remotely; however, company policy dictates that there can be only one DHCPhường VPS on the corporate network, và this hệ thống is located at the Tooth City office. Remotely deploying images khổng lồ the 50 computers at the branch offices would cause immense congestion on the connection.

Ron chooses lớn use Windows Deployment Services because with unattended setup, he can:

Deploy Windows to lớn computers at the branch sites without being physically present there.

Use his existing replication solution to deliver images to the branch site servers.

Use the network boot referral system lớn minimize network traffic between the branch sites & the central office.

Ron prestages each client computer và assigns the appropriate branch office server as the referral VPS for each. This ensures that the client downloads files & images from the local VPS, which minimizes traffic on the line between the offices.

Ron has two standard operating system configurations — one for the desktop computers & one for laptops that contains the sales presentations and drivers for projectors. Therefore, he builds two images: one with the desktop configuration, and one with the máy tính xách tay configuration (with no applications). He stores all the user data on one of the servers, so he can deploy Windows without preserving any existing data on the client computers.

Ron uses Windows System Image Manager (Windows SIM) lớn author two image unattend files — one for the desktop computers & one for the laptops. These files automate the installation, so Ron does not need to lớn be present at each computer during the installation. They also automatically install vsao.club Office & the line-of-business application that the company uses for package tracking. He uses the Windows Deployment Services management tools to associate the unattover files with the images.

Next, Ron configures Windows Deployment Services so when a computer is restarted, it will boot from the network automatically và deploy the appropriate image (without requiring the users lớn press F12). After the image is applied to lớn each computer, the computer is automatically joined to the corporate domain & restarted. He also configures the deployment so that when the computer restarts, the computer will not network boot unless F12 is pressed. This way, the computer then boots to the hard disk drive sầu and finishes the installation process. This prevents a boot loop, in which the computer would continue booting inlớn Setup. When the installation is completed, the computer is ready for the user to log on.

Scenario three: The large enterprise

Shu Ilớn is the network architect for Wide World Importers, a large enterprise with 5,000 employees in offices all over the world. The major employee centers are in the United States and Germany, and there are 13 branch offices in other countries. Shu has five servers available to lớn hyên ổn in the U.S. hub, two in the German hub, và one in each of the branch offices. The servers at the hubs are connected to lớn the corporate Ethernet on 1 Gbps network interface cards (NICs); the other computers are on 100-MBps NICs. The hubs are connected by T3 lines, & the other sites are connected by T1 lines. All of the servers are hired on two-year leases.

Wide World Importers is replacing the accounting department’s 200 computers with computers running Windows 7 (or Windows 8.1). Shu would also like to deploy a Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 or Windows Server 2012 R2 image khổng lồ any newly leased servers in the U.S. office. The servers in the German office & the branch sites are the responsibility of the local administrators. Currently, deployments at Wide World Importers are done by using RIS, và Shu wants to lớn ensure that the existing computer building processes are preserved with the move lớn Windows Deployment Services. In addition, it is important that each computer is deployed with an operating system in a language that is appropriate for the users in that country or region.

Shu chooses khổng lồ use Windows Deployment Services because it enables hlặng khổng lồ bởi the following:

Use appropriate language packs to reduce the required number of images.

Manage all of his Windows Deployment Services servers from a single computer.

Use multicast deployments lớn preserve sầu bandwidth while deploying images to lớn many computers concurrently.

Write scripts to automate common management tasks.

Shu upgrades his servers to lớn Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 or Windows Server 2012 và creates his images. The vast majority of his deployments will be in English or German, so he creates Windows 7 (or Windows 8.1) image in each language. Other languages will be installed by using external language packs, và applications will be downloaded by using Systems Management Server (SMS). After creating the images, Shu uploads the images và language packs to the Windows Deployment Services VPS.

Shu authors unattover files with Windows SIM. He then uses File Replication Service (FRS) to lớn copy the images, language packs, and unattkết thúc files to the Windows Deployment Services servers around the world. Of the accounting computers used by Wide World Importers, 150 are in the U.S. office, 30 are in the German office, và the remaining trăng tròn are scattered around the world. Shu uses multicasting to lớn deploy lớn the 150 computers in the U.S. office simultaneously. To vì this, he creates a multicast transmission for the relevant image on his Windows Deployment Services server.

To preserve sầu the state & data on the previous computers, Shu uses the User State Migration Tool (USMT) lớn save sầu all of the data and user configurations khổng lồ a shared folder on the primary Windows Deployment Services VPS. Then he sets up each computer to lớn boot from its local Windows Deployment Services server và to lớn start automated cài đặt by using the unattover files. The computers in the U.S. office will automatically join the multicast transmission, while the computers in the other offices will deploy using unicasting. When the installation is completed, Shu runs a task with USMT lớn migrate the user data khổng lồ each computer.

When the lease on a hệ thống expires and the hệ thống is replaced, Shu can use Windows Deployment Services lớn deploy his Windows Server images in the same way that he performed the RIS deployment.

Scenario Four: A Custom Deployment Using Transport Server

John Woods is the server maintenance engineer at the A. Datum Corporation data center. He is responsible for maintaining the 300 servers used by A. Datum Corporation"s major customers. One of these customers is Adventure Works.

Adventure Works uses 40 servers lớn run a career Web site (which is backed by a database) for circus performers. After the release of a popular film about circus life, Adventure Works expects an increase in the use of their Web site. They order 10 additional servers lớn handle the anticipated traffic.

John wants to deploy operating systems to these servers by using Windows Deployment Services. He does not have AD DS running in this environment; he wants to lớn store the configuration information for his computers in a SQL Server database. As a result, he cannot use the standard Windows Deployment Services solution. In addition, he wants to lớn partition the disks in a standard configuration & also copy data (some for database servers, some for Web servers) before the unattended setup begins. John chooses khổng lồ use Windows Deployment Services because he can:

Write a plug-in that reads configuration data for the computers from a data store other than AD DS (the data store is typically a database or a flat file).

Write scripts (lớn run in Windows PE) that perkhung preinstallation tasks & then hotline Setup khổng lồ install the operating system.

John creates 10 computer accounts in his database for his 10 new servers, & he populates them with the required information. He installs the Windows Deployment Services server role on his server (choosing lớn install only the Transport Server role service). He then writes a PXE provider (a plug-in that reads information from the database & passes it to Windows Deployment Services) và registers it with the VPS. He creates a custom boot image that contains Windows PE along with startup scripts lớn partition the disks & copy the data. Then he uses ImageX khổng lồ capture one of his existing servers as an install image.

After performing these initial tasks, John connects his servers khổng lồ the network và boots them. They boot inkhổng lồ Windows PE by using the configuration stored in the database. His scripts run khổng lồ prepare each computer for deployment, and the scripts over by running ImageX to lớn apply the operating system image on each computer.

Additional references

For information about getting started with Windows Deployment Services, see Windows Deployment Services Getting Started Guide for Windows Server 2012.

For more information about Windows PowerShell cmdlets for WDS, see Windows Deployment Services Cmdlets in Windows PowerShell.